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pcb-bigBefore the advent of the printed circuit board, electronic products used vacuum tubes. These huge, long, space-consuming tubes connected larger components of electronic devices such as the early computing machines and telecommunication instruments. Tube sockets, terminal strips and soldering the components were the main methods to keep these connected. This type of setup requires rooms of equipments to carry out simple services and functions.

Connections were exposed to changes in temperatures and humidity, among many other factors, making them more vulnerable to damage. Maintenance was very costly and time consuming, too.

Then, came the printed circuit board, which made everything more compact; as a result, functions performed faster and became more reliable. These boards also made electronic products easier to manufacture and therefore cheaper. Connecting electronic components became much easier, too.

Since then, PCBs have become a crucial component of electronic instruments and equipment. One small board can contain a lot of passive and active electronic components such as resistors, capacitors and diodes.

All the components are connected to each via traces (copper lines). No need for bulky vacuum tubes and lengthy wires to connect the various parts. The entire circuit is more organized, less cluttered and more compact. This way, several circuits and boards can be connected together and fit into a small electronic product. Compact but fully functional.

In the world of business, the PCB has a high market value. For more details visit pcbnet.com. Aside from the above mentioned advantages of using PCBs, there are still more benefits, such as these:

Reduced electronic noise

Electronic noise refers to fluctuations in the electrical signal that occur at random. All electronic circuits exhibit this, at varying degrees. Noise can degrade the performance of the circuit, especially if these occur frequently. PCBs often have very low electronic noise. One kind of noise that is significantly reduced when using PCBs is shot noise.

This type of noise is generated when electrons travelling through the circuit leave and arrive at random. For example, in a vacuum tube (used in electronics before the arrival of PCBs), the electrons travel a considerable distance from one end (cathode) to the other (anode). Because of the distance and the width of the path the electrons travel, they arrive at random. This randomness creates shot noise. Over time, shot noise can significantly reduce the efficiency and reliability of the entire system.

Printed circuit board

In PCBs, shot noise is significantly reduced. This is because of the presence of resistors and conductors within the circuit. These components allow the electrons to etherealize. Because of this, the electrons are able to move diffusively and arriving at relatively the same time. There is minimal randomness in the electron arrivals, which reduces shot noise.

Also, the length of the paths that electrons have to travel is significantly shorter and more organized. This reduces the radiation and the pickup of electromagnetic waves. It also lowers the cross-talk between the different circuit components and the different traces.

Easy to Diagnose and Repair

The different components and polarities on a printed circuit board are well-designed. These are also clearly labeled on the boards. These make installation and repair more convenient. A person would immediately know what the component and its specifications.


One PCB can accommodate a large amount of electronic components such as diodes, resistors, and ICs. One of the reasons that allow for the compact size is the absence of wires. The components are connected through copper traces. Wires would make the entire circuit cluttered and messy.

Every year, we celebrate several special occasions with our friends and family, be it a co-worker’s birthday party, relatives’ anniversary or family celebration of Christmas. Together with these events are the expected presents to be given and/or received. Rather than spending more time preparing for the occasion itself, we end up spending most of our time thinking about the gifts we would love to offer.

ChallengeCoinsThere are a lot of gift-worthy products sold in the market ranging from clothes to shoes, kitchen wares to household appliances, and a lot more. This is a problem common to all of us. Are towels, coffee mugs, and kitchen utensils great enough that the receiver will appreciate these or will these just be another addition to the collection of gifts they do not use?

Gifts vary depending on the occasion, the celebrant/s, and other variables. For example, a birthday party for an eight-year-old boy would give you the idea of giving a toy car or a ball. For a wedding anniversary, you may want to give a bottle of wine or something that is sold specifically for couples. On the other hand, consider giving something the receiver really loves, a favorite dress or bag perhaps, in occasions like Christmas and Thanksgiving when wish lists and motifs are not provided.

However, there are also instances when we would really love to settle for something more meaningful, acceptable in any occasion, suitable for all ages, and cheaper, of course. Imagine a gift you can give to someone who has the ability to impart ideas, memories and stories. There is no better way to give something intangible than in the form of an item like a wedding ring, which carries two individual’s promises of love, and like a letter containing all the memories we had shared with the people dear to us. This is exactly the reason why www.ChallengeCoins4Less.com became the number one option when comes buying gifts for loved ones.

www.ChallengeCoins4Less.com is an online shop, which provides the perfect gift for every occasion – challenge coins.

Having the perfect coin has never been easier for we allow our customers to decide on how they want their coins to appear. Customers can send their ideas to us. With our expert and knowledgeable team, you can expect your job order to be well-accepted and be ready in no time. It is also up to the customer to decide on the shape and the metals to use.

coinsThey can choose from polished and antique gold, silver, brass, and copper, as well as black nickel and duo tone metals. Our customers can also freely decide which among the many options to take such as diamond cut edges, epoxy coating, key chains, bottle opener, custom inserts, and coin capsules. The entire process is fast and simple, plus the coin is affordable since you can already get one at $5.

There are a lot of possibilities with www.ChallengeCoins4Less.com. Coins can be designed to remember a particular group you and the person whom you’ll be giving it as a gift had been a part of. You can even choose to include phrases such as those motto or beliefs that are significant to both you and the receiver. The logo of a birthday celebrant’s favorite sports team can also be added in the design. This can surely make him happy.

For couples, they can decide to include images of an important place in their life into the coin. It could be an image or symbol of the country where they first met.

What matters most during special occasions with family and friends is the expression of love, care and concern. A birthday party won’t be complete without the people important to the celebrant. The same goes with anniversaries and celebration of Christmas. However, giving gifts has already been a part of our culture and tradition. It does not really matter what we give, but since we are already at it, why not choose the better option?

Instead of spending most of your time thinking of what to buy from malls, going to www.ChallengeCoins4Less.com is definitely a wiser move. It saves you time from going to stores outside. You can also personalize the item and incorporate memories and stories in it. Its fast and simple production process and reasonable price also makes it one of the best gift items today.

Author Bio:
Visit www.ChallengeCoins4Less.com for online shop, which gives the perfect gift to every occasion in School, Organization, and Business and so on.

Buying golf iron sets is easy nowadays with all the distributors around. Due to their similar appearances, many people think that these sets only have the same club types in terms of features. Hence, it brings many people to ask questions about why there are clubs for males and females.

Contrary to popular opinion, golf clubs come with a wide range of features tailored according to males and females’ requirements.

The following are some of the differences noticed among golf iron sets for men and women:


Golf EquipmentIrons designed for women have heavier club head compared to the ones made for men. This feature helps in launching balls towards the target by adding extra weight aside from the raw force generated by a woman’s swing. However, assessing its features will show that that clubs for women are still lighter in general despite having heavier club heads.

Shaft characteristics

Clubs for females also have softer flex and with shorter staff. Shafts that are more flexible give way to perfect hit together with the club head’s weight contributing to the entire swing mechanics.

Shafts are also designed to be shorter compared to men’s clubs. Looking at physical characters, women tend to be shorter compared to men, which means they need shorter shafts to suit their height. In case the female golfer is taller, she can have the shaft customized and own unique golf iron sets that meet her expectation.

Shaft materials used for women also tend to be different. Regular golf shafts are constructed from steel while those for women are made from graphite. Graphite material is lighter than steel, which is often used for men’s clubs. Men can choose from steel and graphite shaft that will be ideal for the shot he is trying to achieve.

Loft measurements

Women’s golf clubs’ loft measurements are around 12 to 13 degrees, which is significantly higher to the usual 9 to 11 degrees for men.

Grip differences

GolfJust like with shaft, grip diameter for women is smaller than men’s golf club grip. Physical differences also emerge as the reason why this feature is smaller compared to what men use. Women’s hands are smaller, which means holding clubs for men can be difficult because of their wider diameters. Through the smaller grip measurement, women will be able to grip on their clubs properly and hit the ball without problems.

Aesthetic differences

Just like other products, the appearances of golf iron sets can also be good indicators whether the product is for men or for women. Clubs for men may come in generic neutral or male colors like blue. Women, on the other hand, can choose from a collection of pastel-colored golf clubs. However, color should be the least point to consider in obtaining golf clubs because it doesn’t affect a player’s performance.

Common misconceptions

Golf clubsWhile golf clubs may be designed for men and women, it doesn’t mean that players should only use the clubs designed for them. Many players are able to play using the opposite sex’s golf clubs. It is all about the feel in hitting the ball as well as matching the required strength according to the club’s features. For instance, since women’s golf club heads are heavier and with more flexible shafts, men who are using them should tweak the mechanics of hitting the ball from grip to force to achieve the right hit. Many players can train with these clubs to ensure they will work for their edge in the game.

Buyers can buy men and women’s golf iron sets through distributors. Understanding the differences will help players know which clubs will work for them. They can also experiment and find out whether they are more comfortable using the opposite sex’s golf clubs.

Long Island is a county found in New York. It is full of vineyards, golf courses, beaches, beautiful mansions and so much more! People who visit this place will surely have a good and well-rested vacation.

But what if you want to live in Long Island permanently? There are several Long Island homes for sale that you can find. However, choosing the right home may cause you some problems, especially if it’s your first time to buy a real estate property. You don’t have to worry anymore! This article will give you tips in choosing homes for sale in Long Island.


Know the Price Range

Buying a house is a big investment. Thus, you need to know the price range of the houses for sale so you would know how much money you’ll have to spend in buying a new home in Long Island.

Hire a Real Estate Agent

Real-Estate-AgentThe real estate industry offers a lot of choices. And as a buyer, you want to make sure that you have searched and checked everything before making a big decision. To find your dream home, you need to get a real estate agent because she gives you a list of homes that are on sale. You may need to spend a hefty amount, but once you’ve found your dream house, then every penny that you spent will be all worth it.

How Active Are You?

The reason you want to buy a house is because you want to give your family a shelter where they can do whatever they want to do. But not everyone has that kind of reason. Some people prefer to reside in a place where they can have fun activities without going somewhere else. Good thing there are Long Island homes for sale situated in areas where you can enjoy fun activities all year long. You just need to consider the activities that you normally do to find the right spot.

Do You Love Nature?

As mentioned earlier, Long Island offers vineyards, golf courses, and beaches. If you know the scenes that make you calm and happy, you will get to buy the perfect home for your family.

Schools and Amenities

schoolsWhen you are going to move to another place, it is inevitable that your kids will also transfer to another school. Fortunately, there are Long Island homes for sale, which are near the schools and other amenities like hospitals, police stations, and fire stations. There are also houses for sale in Long Island, which are near the mall. You just have to consider the distance from the house to these places to find the best home.

Meet the Community

Before you buy the property, you need to meet the community. Always remember that once you bought the property, you become a community member of that area. Thus, you need to meet the people who live in the subdivision. If you like the neighbourhood, then there is no reason not to buy the house.

Get a Specialist

It is imperative to assess the property before buying it. It will assure you of not getting unexpected expenses after you bought a Long Island home. To evaluate the house, you need to get a specialist for he will check everything, from legal compliance to the house’s condition. With the help of his advice, it is easy for you to decide whether you should buy the property or look for more Long Island homes for sale.

Buying a house is not a joke. You have to spend a big amount of money before you can buy and live in your dream home. But if you follow long island homes for sale can be found at li-realestatefinder.com, you are finding the right home for you and your family.

Do you also tend to lose things just by simply going out of the house? Most likely some of us here also misplace our stuff even just by staying stationary in our houses or basically wherever we are. Now, for us who are just like these people we’ve mentioned earlier, then it has become more imperative than ever to stock up on badge holders! Quality samples of these are available here.

What They Are For

Okay, so probably some of us here are asking what badge holders are and what these are for. Well, basically a badge holder is a way to hold identification tags, name tags, I. D. cards, and the like. So when we say badge holder, it’s like we’re asking, in what way are we going to display this tag or card on my stuff or on ourbody. We could assume here therefore that these holders actually take on many forms. There are the basic clips, tags, necklaces or lanyards, hooks, and reels. You can find them all here.

ID Holders

We can even opt for added protection with either hard or soft plastic containers which are called protectors but for us is actually the original badge holders, if you will ask us. That’s because these are actually those envelope like containers where we slip our I. D. cards in. So the other types just function to keep those things in the places where we intend them to be, such as our bags, luggage, and yes, our necks. Click here so you can have a better view of all our badge holder options.

So maybe now some of us will ask, do we really need a badge holder? We must say, you should! Here are the four reasons why:

• Convenient

This one is self-explanatory, but let me use this opportunity to expound further. With a badge holder, all you have to do is clip, hook, or hang, and in seconds, you have got a bag that is labeled with the proper identification of its owner, or a person who does not need to shout out his name any more to be identified. Find one that is most convenient for you here.

• Fashionable

These days, badge holders are also required to follow the trend in fashion! So this gives us fashion forward people no excuse to skip those badge holder kits – with so many colors, designs, and shapes to choose from, all of us are sure to find at least a couple or so that click with our trendy tastes. You even have the option to customize your own badge holder without necessarily costing you extra! Click here to find out how to get your preferred lanyard drafted with a quote for free.


• Reliable

Our purpose is to make sure we do not lose our identification cards, right? You can bet on that with a badge holder. Just make sure to choose the type that fits your needs. You can click here to check your options.

• Practical

These holders are not just for holding our badges. How about a handy coin holder? Or someplace to keep your little notes in? It could even handle all the tiny trinkets you want to carry, albeit in a creative way. Let your imagination do the trick when you explore your badge holder options here.

Where to Get Them

Now that we have known what badger holders are for, it is time to know where to get them! One good option for badge holder needs is the-lanyard-factory, which you can access here.

The badge holders at Lanyard Factory have two common types: those that are made to be paired with a lanyard, and those that come with a reel and are therefore stand alone, which you can preview here. When you order a badge holder via this site, you will be given the option to choose not just the badge holder itself, but the lanyard and attachments that go with it.

Would you want a clip to go with your tag? How about a hook? Maybe you would want one that could be opened or adjusted with a flick of a thumb. Or maybe a key ring or one that is made to swivel. There are also attachments that are made for cell phones. And, one could ask for a combination of the attachments or a customized design. All you have to do is click here. Now if you’re rushing an order, get to know the contact number to dial here.

Motivational speakers are sometimes referred to as inspirational speakers. They are people from different kinds of backgrounds who are hired to speak in front of an audience and deliver motivational and inspiring speeches. A motivational speaker speaks in different kinds of venues for different purposes; some may be hired by corporate companies to speak in a boardroom while some are hired by schools to talk in front of students. Some common purposes or goals that a motivational speaker tries to make the audience strive for are self-help, self-improvement, team building, or community goals. Whatever the purpose and venue, the main purpose of motivational speakers is primarily to motivate, inspire, or uplift the moods of the people in the audience.

Keynote speaker

An ideal motivational speaker is usually known to be an expert on a subject matter. He/she persuades people to look at the brighter side of things, look at something from a different perspective, focus on themselves and what they can do best, etc. Most people are prone to focusing their energies into their problems, so a motivational speaker’s advice is usually to divert the attention to the opportunities that may arise in the face of those problems. Most excellent speakers are able to affect a profound change mentally, emotionally or even professionally into people’s lives and view on things. They are able to convince people to either change some things in their lives for the better or change some things within themselves.

One of the most common and effective strategy of motivational speakers is to relate their inspirational speeches to their own experiences. A speaker reflects on those experiences and uses them to inspire others. In this way, the speeches are more natural and inspiring because the speaker has experienced them himself. This is also the reason why speakers are well-versed on the subject matters discussed and also the reason why they come from different backgrounds. Some of them are hired as special guests in events while the more popular ones go on a tour on different places around the country for speaking engagements. Well-known speakers also release self-help books, DVDs and other merchandise. They are also commonly invited for TV show guestings.

There are three types of motivational speakers according to area of expertise:

1. Personal Development

This is the most common type of speaker. They are typically what come to most people minds when they hear the words “motivation speakers”. They encourage and guide people to find their purpose in life. These speakers may talk about specific topics like balancing work and family life, overcoming adversities, or having a more positive perspective in life.

2. Youth Mentor

Motivational SpeakerYouth mentors are commonly invited to speak to young people in schools, churches or community centers. They normally discuss topics like focusing in school, healthy communication with others, and deciding on what they really want to do with their lives. They try to steer the youth’s lives in a healthy and positive direction.

3. Community

Community types of speakers give inspiring speeches about the important social and community issues. The speaker’s goal is to educate the public or the people in the community about the topics discussed, thus giving them the power to take on positive actions. The speakers may also help unite the community towards one common goal. For example, a speaker may give a talk that will enable the community members to take action against noise pollution. So aside from inspiring people to become one community, speakers of this type can also help raise awareness on very important issues.

4. Business

This type of speakers gives talks of inspiration and guidance to people in business teams, from the sales people, the staff, and up to the executive directors. Business speakers should of course have a business background in order to relay his/her own experiences of success or failure and the lessons learned from it. A business speaker helps inspire the people working in a company to improve their work as well as to inspire enthusiasm towards achieving the company goals.

More and more people today are relying on motivational speakers to give them a little bit of boost during challenging times. There’s surely nothing wrong with looking for positivity in trying times, and a motivational speaker will make sure to have you covered should the need arise.

Author Bio:
Motivational-speaker-success get very valuable experience and are able to develop their skills and build their reputation, which is what every beginner speaker needs. Motivational speakers will have a module or to dedicated to inspiring and motivating others.

LGD-4033 is a selective androgen receptor modulator (SARM) that is non-steroidal. It binds with androgen receptors and shows anabolic activity in muscles, keenness for bone and muscle against sebaceous and prostate glands, and anabolic activity in bones. An androgen receptor is what testosterone and DHT bind to and will fuse with another androgen receptor and transport itself to the nucleus of an androgen cell. This is how the androgenic hormones apply their anabolic effects on muscle tissue.

liquidLGD-4033 is relatively new and the number of tests done on it has had similar results. Trials of LGD-4033 show that it enlarges lean body mass and reduce body fat along with increased strength. It has shown to have to be the most capable SARM that is effective in putting on bulk size, which is one of the reasons people buy LGD-4033. Bodybuilders will also find LGD-4033 helpful when recomping and cutting, especially when used in conjunction with other SARMs.

Majority of the people who buy LGD-4033 are those who are experiencing diseases that cause muscle loss. It is also helpful for muscle wasting conditions such as osteoporosis, sarcopenia, neuromuscular diseases, muscle atrophy, and cystic fibrosis, among others. Muscle atrophy is described as a decrease in muscle mass, whether it be a complete or partial wasting away of muscle. LGD-4033 helps because it increases lean body mass. With neuromuscular diseases, a dose of LGD-4033 helps in rehabilitation.

There have been no major side effects found through the studies on LGD-4033. Findings show that Follicle-Stimulating hormones (FSH) and Luteinizing Hormones (LH) are not decreased. It also been found that the recovery time is not very long and there are no effects on blood pressure. Also, the appetite became greater, which helped in higher calorie intake. There was a study done with single and multiple doses of LGD-4033 on healthy male and the results were largely positive with no adverse effects found.

One can buy LGD-4033 over the internet, and it even comes in liquid form. There are various forums where people’s reviews on their use of LGD-4033 can be seen. Most of these forums are on bodybuilding sites, and the reviews are mostly positive. The people who have used it share their experience with LGD-4033 and are even giving out their recommended doses. These forums are convenient for the people who want to buy LGD-4033.

Oral SARMs are still pretty much in their early stages of development. Their objective is to have the same benefits as anabolics and androgenic drugs minus the side effects. SARMs at lower doses are effectively selective for anabolic effects, and at increased doses demonstrate masculinizing effects. SARMs have the advantage of being designed to specifically target the androgen receptors in different tissues.

LGD-4033 vs. Ostarine

Ostarine is another SARM that also works as a treatment for muscle wasting conditions. It can be used by athletes to help increase stamina and fitness, and help in their training. In 2013, a professional cyclist was suspended when he tested positive for an A-sample result of Ostarine.

LGD-4033 is said to be multiple times more potent than Ostarine. It is even said to be the strongest SARM in terms of muscle building; yet another reason why plenty of people prefer to buy LGD0-4033.

Overall, there seem to be no findings so far on anything negative on LGD-4033, or any SARMs for that matter. Bodybuilders already seem to be getting into it and posting good results. It even works as a remedy for muscle wasting diseases. Testing on LGD-4033 is still on-going, and time will tell if there are, in fact, downsides to using it, although users have not reported anything bad about their experience with LGD-4033.